Researchers at the Engineering 4.0 facility of the University of Pretoria (UP) are conducting a project to determine damage suffered by fresh produce while being transported intercontinentally from the growers to the retailers. They are doing so by using artificial ‘avocados’, produced by means of ‘3D printing’ (more formally called additive manufacturing) and embedded with microsensors. “This is a flagship project of Engineering 4.0 which focuses on smart transport, infrastructure and cities,” highlighted UP Civil Engineering Department head Professor Wynand Steyn. “The researchers have made use of the department’s unique smAvo and smaTO sensor platforms, which are used to monitor the entire value chain, from farm to fork.”